Domains of Emotional Intelligence

Daniel Goleman, author, psychologist, and science journalist coined the term emotional intelligence in 1995 with his book titled just that, Emotional Intelligence. Emotional Intelligence refers to  the ability of an individual to recognize their own emotions, as well as the emotions of others. As well as the ability to use emotional information to guide thinking and behavior. Goleman separates emotional intelligence into four domains, self-awareness, self-management, social awareness, and relationship management.

Daniel Goleman introduces us to emotional intelligence here

  • Self-awareness – The ability to recognize your own emotions and how they affect your thoughts and behavior, know your strengths and weaknesses, and have self-confidence. This is the ability to step outside yourself with focused observation of how you feel and react in various situations.
  • Self-management – The ability to control impulsive feelings and behaviors, manage your emotions in healthy ways, take initiative, follow through on commitments, and adapt to changing circumstances. Having a non-reactive analytic approach to your feelings and problem solving to increase appropriate responses.
  • Social awareness – The ability to observe and understand the emotions, needs, and concerns of other people, pick up on emotional cues, feel comfortable socially, and recognize the power dynamics in a group or organization. In a nutshell, this is empathy, a fundamental “people skill.”
  • Relationship management – The ability to develop and maintain good relationships, communicate clearly, inspire and influence others, work well in a team, and manage conflict. In other words, having good social skills and being competent in relating to the emotions of others and remain connected.



Additional Sources

Daniel Goleman Ted Talk here

Test your emotional intelligence  here


Emotional Intelligence – Daniel Goleman. (n.d.). Retrieved November 18,
Goleman, D. (1995). Emotional intelligence. New York: Bantam Books.

Merriam, S., Caffarella, R., and Baumgartner, L. (2007). Learning in Adulthood: A Comprehensive Guide, 3rd ed. San Francisco, CA: John Wiley and Sons, Inc.


Readers Theater

Want to engage your students in reading, get them involved and out of their seats? Have no fear Readers Theater is here!

What is readers theater you ask?

Readers Theater is a dramatic presentation of a written work in a script form.  Readers read from a “script” and reading parts are divided among the readers. No memorization, costumes, blocking, or special lighting is needed. Scripts are held by the readers, lines are not memorized. The focus is on reading the text with expressive voices and gestures. Making comprehending the text meaningful and fun for the student.

Tips for implementing readers theater:

  • Choose only scripts that are fun to do with lots of good dialogue. Boring scripts are no better than boring stories.
  • Start slowly and spend the time necessary so students feel comfortable in the performance mode.
  • Model each character’s part and match roles to readers.
  • Combine parts if there are too many, and cut out scenes and characters that aren’t important.
  • Scripts are not sacrosanct. Change them if they work better another way.
  • Work with small groups, not with the whole class, whenever possible.

– See more at:

Classroom Examples

3rd Grade Classroom

High school Classroom

Teacher Examples and additional sources – This one is AWESOME!


Alexander, P. (2006). Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum.

Cornwell, L. (n.d.). What Is Readers Theater. Retrieved November 11, 2015, from

Zone of Proximal Development

Zone of Prox….. what? And how am I suppose to use this?


So what is it?

The zone of proximal development is a concept created by psychologist Lev Vygotsky. According to Vygotsky, the zone of proximal development is:

“the distance between the actual development level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or in collaboration with more capable peers” (Vygotsky, 1978).

Basically,  it is the range of abilities that a person can perform with assistance, but cannot yet perform independently.  

Learning happens within the ZPD. If a task is too easy a student loses focus and gets bored, if it is too difficult one will get frustrated and shut down, but if it is just right then learning can occur.

How do I use this?

So now that you know what ZPD is, how do you as a teacher use this knowledge in your classroom? Well….Vygotsky provides us will multiple options. Peer to peer interaction, pairing up a struggling student with a peer that can help the student. Assistance from the teacher or More Knowledge Individual, when a student goes above ZPD and hits a mental block the teacher or another MKI can assist and guide the student until they get back to the ZPD. Cooperative group work (for more on cooperative learning see my post here) this should take place after scaffolding, group the student teacher and give them a task set just above their independent levels and have them work in the ZPD together. And scaffolding, the most commonly used classroom strategy. When a teacher scaffolds he/she presents the class with a task too difficult for them. She works through the task for them, then with them, then she has a student work through the task independently in front of the class. At this point you can have the students work in groups, pairs, or independently. Each student will need different strategies and will work through the ZPD differently.

This is 6 minute video with a classroom example of ZPD and the multiple options to enhance the students’ learning according to Vygotsky.



Below are my references and links to additional resources for scaffolding instruction.

References and other sources

Alexander, P. (2006). Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed.). Mahwah, N.J.: Erlbaum. – This is an awesome blog post from a teacher explaining the above scaffolding strategies. Edutopia’s 6 scaffolding strategies. Indiana University’s scaffolding resources.